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Extra info for A handbook and grammar of the Tagalog language
73b) the constituent containing the NPI has been topicalized and the expletive der appears in the subject position (immediately to the left of the finite verb). This indicates that the topicalized constituent has not passed through Spec-IP on its way to Spec-CP; rather it has moved directly from its VP-internal position to Spec-CP. 73b). 4 Taking stock We have now reached the following understanding: • Danish has predicate topicalization structures in which the initial DP is a focussed predicate (in Spec-CP) and the post-copula DP is the subject (in Spec-IP).
I discuss three of the most prominent ones below. One is another inversion analysis, in the sense laid out in the introduction, and the other two are non-inversion analyses. 1). 1) IP ✏✏ ✏✏ ✏ DP I ✏ ✏✏ ✏ ✟❍ ❍❍ ✟✟ den . . holdet VP I erk ✧❜ ✧ ❜ ✧ ❜ ikke VP ✧❜ ❜ ❜ ✧ ✧ tk Minna This means that none of the evidence discussed in the previous chapter will distinguish between them, and that all three are live candidates for the analysis of specificational clauses. At the end of this chapter, I suggest that they can be distinguished on semantic grounds, specifically by the semantic type they assume for the subject DP.
We can understand this difference as a result of negation invariably targeting the focus and the fact (observed above) that focus falls on the initial DP in predicate topicalization structures but on the final DP in specificational structures. In what follows, I use the position of negation to distinguish the two readings: clause-final negation indicates predicate topicalization, whereas non-final negation indicates a specificational structure. The next piece of evidence in favor of the two structures is morphological in nature and comes from the distribution of pronominal forms.