By Ki-dong Yi
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Additional resources for A Korean grammar on semantic-pragmatic principles
Evidence for this analysis can be sought by such operations as (a) coordination, (b) wh-questions, (c) clefting, (d) passivisation and (e) fronting. Tests (b) to (e) involve moving the stretch of language around and observing its syntactic behaviour. Testing BASIC CONCEPTS 9 by coordination involves adding a conjoin that realises the same function; only stretches of language that realise the same function can be conjoined: (a) It can be seen that different types of conjoin are required according to the function of in the service station: (i) (ii) Muriel saw the man in the service station and the woman in the shop.
The election campaign has ended. Ted has bought a new motorbike. They sent their friends postcards. You must allow for price increases. He is powerless to make any changes. We consider the situation alarming. We ﬂew to Moscow. The news reached us on Tuesday. Unfortunately, we could not reach York in time. However, other friends were present. 3). 2 Syntactic elements of groups Nominal groups, adjectival groups and adverbial groups are composed of three primary elements or functions: a head (h) preceded by a pre-modiﬁer (m) and followed by a post-modiﬁer (m).
The verb’s corresponding negative forms normally have n’t added to the positive forms. The following are irregular: can’t (from cannot), shan’t (from shall not), won’t (from will not). May not is not usually abbreviated to mayn’t. When n’t follows a consonant – as in didn’t, wouldn’t – it is pronounced as a separate syllable. The inﬂectional n’t forms are used in spoken English and in informal written styles that imitate speech, such as ﬁctional dialogue. The full form not is used in formal written styles and for emphasis – as in The play was not a success, rather than The play wasn’t a success.