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A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners by E. Antonova, E. Boytchinova, P. Benatova PDF

By E. Antonova, E. Boytchinova, P. Benatova

E. Antonova, E. Boytchinova, P. BenatovaA brief Grammar of Bulgarian for English talking newbies / Краткая грамматика болгарского языка для говорящих на английском языке О книге.Учебное пособие, включающее в себя самые важные аспекты современного болгарского языка.Modern Bulgarian is likely one of the South Slavonic languages, descendant of previous Bulgarian. a number of later diversifications of outdated Bulgarian are usually known as outdated Church Slavonic. sleek Bulgarian is now the legit usual language of the Republic of Bulgaria.Bulgarian and Slavonic writing built after the production of the Cyrillic Alphabet within the ninth century (A.D.). Bulgarian is in truth the oldest Slavonic language which used writing for literary paintings and one of many oldest in Europe. The Slavonic literary culture flourished for a number of centuries within the Bulgarian lands and unfold to Serbia and Russia.Содержание книги:Some uncomplicated information in regards to the Bulgarian LanguagePrefacePart One PHONETICS (ФОНЕТИКА) Vowels (Гласни)Unstressed Vowels (Неударени гласни)Consonants (Съгласни)Palatal Consonants (Палатални съгласни)Stress (Ударение)Phonetic changes (Фонемни редувания)Metathesis (Метатеза)Part TwoMORPHOLOGY (МОРФОЛОГИЯ)I. Nouns (Съществителни имена)Gender (Род)Number (Число)Determination of Nouns (Членуване на съществителните имена)Use of the certain Article (Употреба на определителния член)Formation of Nouns (Образуване на съществителните имена)II. Adjectives (Прилагателни имена)Gender (Род)Plural of adjectives (Множествено число на прилагателните имена)The Use of the yes Article with Adjectives (Членуване на прилагателните имена)Degrees of comparability (Степени на сравнение)Formation of Adjectives (Образуване на прилагателните имена)III. Numerals (Числителни имена)Cardinal Numerals (Бройни числителни)Ordinal Numerals (Редни числителни)IV. Pronouns (Местоимения)1. own Pronouns (Лични местоимения)2. Possessive Pronouns (Притежателни местоимения)3. Reflexive Pronouns (Възвратни местоимения)4. Demonstrative Pronouns (Показателни местоимения)5. Interrogative Pronouns (Въпросителни местоимения)6. Relative Pronouns (Относителни местоимения)7. Indefinite Pronouns (Неопределителни местоимения)8. unfavourable Pronouns (Отрицателни местоимения)9. Generalizing Pronouns (Обобщителни местоимения)V Verbs (Глаголи)5.1.. class of Verbs (Класификация на глаголите)A. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs (Преходни и непреходни глаголи)B. own and Impersonal Verbs (Лични и безлични глаголи)C. Non-Reflexive and Reflexive Verbs (Невъзвратни и възвратни глаголи)D. easy and Compound Verbs (Прости и сложни глаголи)5.2. Grammatical different types of the Verb (Граматически категории на глагола)1. individual and quantity (Лице и число)2. point (Вид на глагола)3. The stressful procedure (Глаголните времена)3.1. the current stressful (Сегашно време)3.2. The Imperfect previous (Минало несвършено време)3.3. The Aorist earlier annoying (Минало свършено време -аорист)ЗА the best demanding (Минало неопределено време)3.5. The prior excellent stressful (Минало предварително време)3.6. the longer term stressful (Бъдеще време)3.7. the longer term some time past demanding (Бъдеще време в миналото)3.8. the longer term ideal annoying (Бъдеще предварително време)3.9. the longer term ideal long ago annoying (Бъдеще предварително време в миналото)4. Voice of the Verb (Залог на глагола)Formation of the Passive Voice (Образуване на страдателния залог)5. temper of the Verb ((Наклонение на глагола)5.1. The Indicative temper (Изявително наклонение)5.2. The significant temper (Повелително наклонение)5.3. The Conditional temper (Условно наклонение)5.4. The Renarrated temper (Преизказно наклонение)6. Non-Finite Verb varieties (Нелични глаголни форми)6.1. Participles (Причастия)A. The lively current Participle (Сегашно деятелно причастие)B. The lively Imperfect earlier Participle (Минало несвършено деятелно причастие)С The lively Aorist earlier Participle (Минало свършено деятелно причастие)D. The Passive previous Participle ((Минало страдателно причастие)6.2. Verbal Adverbs (Деепричастия)6.3. Verbal Nouns (Отглаголни съществителни)6.4. The Infinitive (Инфинитив)7. Verb Formation (Образуване на глаголите)7.1. Derivation of Verbs of the Perfective element (Образуване на глаголи от свършен вид)7.2. Derivation of Imperfective Verbs (Образуване на глаголи от несвършен вид)7.3. Derivation of Verbs from different grammatical different types (Образуване на глаголи от други граматически категории)VI. Adverbs (Наречия)VII. Prepositions (Предлози)VIIL Conjunctions (Съюзи)IX. debris (Частици)Literature

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Download PDF by E. Antonova, E. Boytchinova, P. Benatova: A Short Grammar of Bulgarian for English Speaking Learners

E. Antonova, E. Boytchinova, P. BenatovaA brief Grammar of Bulgarian for English talking inexperienced persons / Краткая грамматика болгарского языка для говорящих на английском языке О книге. Учебное пособие, включающее в себя самые важные аспекты современного болгарского языка. glossy Bulgarian is likely one of the South Slavonic languages, descendant of outdated Bulgarian.

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73b) the constituent containing the NPI has been topicalized and the expletive der appears in the subject position (immediately to the left of the finite verb). This indicates that the topicalized constituent has not passed through Spec-IP on its way to Spec-CP; rather it has moved directly from its VP-internal position to Spec-CP. 73b). 4 Taking stock We have now reached the following understanding: • Danish has predicate topicalization structures in which the initial DP is a focussed predicate (in Spec-CP) and the post-copula DP is the subject (in Spec-IP).

I discuss three of the most prominent ones below. One is another inversion analysis, in the sense laid out in the introduction, and the other two are non-inversion analyses. 1). 1) IP ✏✏€€€ € ✏✏ € ✏ DP I ✏€€ € ✏✏ ✏ € ✟❍ ❍❍ ✟✟ den . . holdet VP I erk ✧❜ ✧ ❜ ✧ ❜ ikke VP ✧❜ ❜ ❜ ✧ ✧ tk Minna This means that none of the evidence discussed in the previous chapter will distinguish between them, and that all three are live candidates for the analysis of specificational clauses. At the end of this chapter, I suggest that they can be distinguished on semantic grounds, specifically by the semantic type they assume for the subject DP.

We can understand this difference as a result of negation invariably targeting the focus and the fact (observed above) that focus falls on the initial DP in predicate topicalization structures but on the final DP in specificational structures. In what follows, I use the position of negation to distinguish the two readings: clause-final negation indicates predicate topicalization, whereas non-final negation indicates a specificational structure. The next piece of evidence in favor of the two structures is morphological in nature and comes from the distribution of pronominal forms.

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