By Josh Gregory,Kathleen Petelinsek
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Alleyne for a diﬀerent view). Other maroon creoles, outside Surinam, include Palenquero (Colombia) and Angolar (São Tomé), which are still spoken today. Finally, remnants of another maroon creole have been found in the ‘Maroon Spirit Possession Language’ of Jamaica (Bilby ). This is not employed in ordinary situations, but it is used by people when they are possessed during religious ceremonies, to talk to the spirits of those of their ancestors who were born in Jamaica. The three-way division made here at least to some extent cuts across the distinction between endogenous and exogenous creoles.
Even then, the possibilities are not exhausted. Mobilian Jargon (a pidgin based on the Muskogean Amerindian languages Choctaw and Chickasaw, formerly spoken in the American Southwest) has order and Micmac Pidgin English (Amerindian in Canada) has order. Some alternate between and , such as Russenorsk, Fiji Pidgin Hindustani and Eskimo Pidgin (for the latter, see chapter ). ’ English. ’ () Mobilian Jargon (Crawford ) () Tamaha olˇcifo inu hakalo banna. ’ () Sino-Russian Pidgin (Nichols : ) () Ryba lovi ponimaj toˇce netu.
Peter Bakker It is also sometimes the case that the order of adjectives and nouns, for instance, is diﬀerent in the pidgin and the lexiﬁer language. This could be seen in example (), from Icelandic Pidgin Basque. In all these cases, the word order of the pidgin is identical to that of at least one of the languages involved in the contact. Phonology As a rule, the phonological system of pidgins is simpliﬁed as compared to the source language. For example, Fijian fricatives /ß/ and /ð/ become stops /b/ and /d/ in Pidgin Fijian, and the Zulu and Xhosa clicks become pulmonic stops in Fanagalo.