By Thomas Paterson, J. Garry Clifford, Robert Brigham, Michael Donoghue, Kenneth Hagan
This best-selling textual content provides the easiest synthesis of present scholarship on hand to stress the subject of expansionism and its manifestations.
Read Online or Download American Foreign Relations: A History, Volume 1: To 1920 PDF
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Additional resources for American Foreign Relations: A History, Volume 1: To 1920
A central government consisting of an executive, a bicameral legislature, and a judiciary—all designed to balance one another—replaced the weak confederation of sovereign states. ”125 Southerners, remembering the Jay–Gardoqui negotiations, hesitated to allow Congress too much power over commerce. In return for a constitutional prohibition against taxes on exports and a twenty-year moratorium on interference with the slave trade, however, southern delegates granted Congress the right to regulate imports by a simple majority.
These fortified posts, which ranged from Dutchman’s Point on Lake Champlain to Michilimackinac on Lake Michigan (see map on page 26), strategically controlled the frontier, including the fur trade. Indian tribes between the Great Lakes and the Ohio River—the Six Nations of the Iroquois in the northeast, the Shawnees and Algonquins in the northwest, and the Creeks, Cherokees, and Seminoles in the southeast—resisted white encroachment. 107 Indian claims to land above and below the Ohio remained valid under their previous treaties, Native Americans insisted.
A graduate of King’s College (now Columbia University), this upper-class New Yorker became one of America’s most prominent diplomats. Before helping to negotiate the peace treaty with Great Britain, Jay represented the United States in Spain (1780–1782), where he met unrelenting frustration. Under the Articles of Confederation, Jay served as secretary of foreign affairs with a minuscule staff of only one secretary, part-time translators, and a doorkeeper-messenger. He later became chief justice of the Supreme Court (1789– 1795).