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Read e-book online Atmospheric aerosol properties PDF

By Kirill Ya. Kondratyev, Lev S. Ivlev, Vladimir F. Krapivin, Costas A. Varostos

This booklet offers the 1st complete research of the way aerosols shape within the surroundings via in situ techniques in addition to through delivery from the outside (dust storms, seas spray, biogenic emissions, woodland fires etc.). Such an research has been through the honor of either commentary info (various box observational experiments) and numerical modelling effects to evaluate weather affects of aerosols considering that those affects are the main major uncertainty in learning traditional and anthropogenic motives of weather swap.

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In this case, basic objectives are connected with the studies of clouds, aerosol, and optically active gas components [8, 46, 61, 74, 75], as well as the impact on the intensity of water phase transformations in the atmosphere [31, 36, 40, 75] and on the dynamics of relevant processes [27, 40]. 1 COMPLEX ATMOSPHERIC ENERGETICS EXPERIMENT Basic objectives and peculiarities In the process of realization of the Global Atmospheric Research Programme (GARP) [21, 72] an accomplishment of the Complex Atmospheric Energetics Experiment (CAENEX) has been very important as a ®rst attempt to extensively study the atmospheric energetics and interaction between the atmosphere and surface, with the role of aerosol being taken into account [3, 14, 46].

Of importance was to study the structure of the air ¯ux at various stages of its passage over the city, with due regard for the special character of windward and leeward directions, as well as in the centre of the city. Changes in the temperature lapse rate near the surface due to asphalt cover of the urban streets and squares were determined, observations of the formation of elevated temperature inversions over the urban constructions were carried out, comparisons were made of wind direction and speed along the streets and in the blowing air ¯ux with an estimated slowing down of air ¯uxes and assessed surface roughness.

During the CAENEX-70 expedition, measurements were made from the ¯ying laboratory IL-18 of the A. I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory. The aircraft was also equipped with aerosol ®lters. Sec. 1 Complex Atmospheric Energetics Experiment 7 CAENEX-71 In June±July, 1971 a second CAENEX expedition was accomplished in northwestern Kazakhstan, 80 km south of Uralsk (CAENEX-71). The programme of this expedition di€ered little from that of CAENEX-70. The di€erence consisted mainly in a more detailed study of turbulent heat ¯uxes.

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