By Phoevos Panagiotidis
Offering a singular thought of elements of speech, this publication discusses categorization from a methodological and theoretical aspect a view. It attracts on discoveries and insights from a couple of methods - typology, cognitive grammar, notional ways, and generative grammar - and offers a generative, feature-based concept. construction on up to date study and the newest findings and ideas in categorization and word-building, Panagiotidis combines the primacy of specific positive aspects with a syntactic categorization strategy, addressing the elemental, yet usually missed, questions in grammatical idea. Designed for graduate scholars and researchers learning grammar and syntax, this booklet is richly illustrated with examples from a number of languages and explains components and phenomena principal to the character of human language.
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Extra info for Categorial Features: A Generative Theory of Word Class Categories
Thus, whether there are two instances of –ing, an aspectual one and a nominalizer, or just one –ing, an aspectual marker, painting in (4) is a prototypical noun denoting an object concept, while in (8) it is a prototypical verb denoting a dynamic event, an activity. 3 So, we have a process nominal, still a noun, in (5), a gerund with verbal and nominal properties in (6) and a verbal element in (7). (4) The painting is on the wall. (5) [Helena’s painting of horses in her free time] proved more than a hobby.
32 Are word class categories universal? categorized as nouns in Standard Indonesian functioned as arguments in Riau Indonesian; whether items categorized as verbs in Standard Indonesian functioned as Riau predicates; and whether adjectives in the Standard variety functioned as Riau Indonesian modiﬁers. If a verb, noun or adjective in the Standard variety had a different syntactic function in Riau Indonesian than the default one, he counted it as an exception. 8 In the light of the above, I think we can safely consider Riau Indonesian as a run-of-the-mill language, at least as far as its lexical categories are concerned, pending a more in-depth investigation of its grammar, based on more empirical evidence, compounded by elicited responses and – crucially – speaker intuitions.
The ﬁnal section concludes the chapter. 2 Do all languages have nouns and verbs? How can we tell? We set out in the previous chapter to develop a UG theory of grammatical category. This entails making claims about the Language Faculty. , all languages have a word for ‘mother’ or ‘sun’ for obvious reasons) or, worse, (b) a methodological bias that seeks to impose Indo-European categories on languages working in distinctly non-Indo-European ways. 2 This question is not a matter of pure data collection, however.